Pronouns are words we use in the place of a full noun.

There are many different kinds of pronouns.



Hello !
I'm really confused . I don't know when to use must or have to !
I read that must is used for internal obligations and have to is used for external ( laws or rules ) but there's an example in my school book saying focus on the following:
Drivers must stop when the light is red .
The light is red . you have to stop !
I don't get the difference between these 2 examples. Isn't have to used for laws? Then why must here?
I want u to tell me all uses of must and have to please . I know they are now almost interchangeable but I want them for my stupid education system .which teaches us things just to confuse us. There are more than 60 questions whether to choose have to or must
So please I hope you explain them to me in details. By the way, I read you article about them but I still want more details and specially the 2 examples above

Hi uchiha itache,

I'm sorry to hear about this situation. Without knowing a lot more about how the tests you have to pass are prepared, I'm afraid it's difficult to give specific advice. What I can do is recommend the Cambridge Dictionary's explanation of must, which is quite detailed and includes a section in which it is contrasted with 'have to'.

Note that the rule about 'must' being for obligations coming from the speaker and 'have to' being more for external ones is a general rule and requires some interpretation. For example, one might consider a rule or prohibition an external obligation (and this would make sense), but 'must' (and 'must not') are often used in public notices announcing rules and prohibitions. You can see examples in the Rules and laws section of the page I linked to above.

I hope this helps you.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you . it helped me much but there's still a question . would you please tell me if the following is right :

( a boss to his assistant )
You must come early
So the assistant says to his friend ( I have to come early )

Is this right? Anyone with authority can give orders using must . and the one who is ordered HAVE TO do the order ?

And can you please tell me some good books which explain this kind of detailed grammar like English grammar in use and practical English usage ? I have these two but I want more as I don't always find what I need in them

Hello uchiha itache,

The exchange below is correct:

(A boss to his assistant)  You must come early.
(The assistant to his friend)  I have to come early.

However, the following is also correct:

(A boss to his assistant)  You have to come early.
(The assistant to his friend)  I must come early.


Must and have to are largely interchangeable in modern English. There is a tendency to use must for internal obligation and have to for external requirements, but this is no more than a tendency and is in no way a rule. I can think of sentences where one or ther other seems more likely to me but I cannot think of a sentence in which only one is possible and in which the other would be incorrect.

I understand this may be frustrating, and it seems your test assumes a rather more fixed rule than is really justified, but we can only describe the language as it is truly used.


The British Council does not offer book recommendations as we need to remain neutral as far as the publishing market goes. I suggest you visit a good bookshop and look for grammar books by well-known and reputable publishers. Find three or four and compare their entries for the same grammar point - must and have to would be good choices - so you can see how they differ in their approaches. It's not a case of choosing the best book but rather the one which best suits your needs. Some have more explanation and some have more exemplification or practice tasks. Pay attention also to the organisation of the book. These are reference books so a good index is very important. Finally, if you can you should test any digital or online components to see how well-designed and helpful they are.

I hope that is helpful to you. Good luck!



The LearnEnglish Team

I'm really grateful ! You helped me a lot

Hello. I'd be thankful if you help me. I'm confused by the use of "could" to express possibility in the present:
There's a situation: I'm looking at the man and I don't know where he works, and I'm trying to guess: "Maybe, he works in the bank" = "He could work in the bank" - is that correct, or "He could work in the bank" means that I'm talking about someone who doesn't work in the bank, but it is a good idea for him to do it?
Look forward to hearing from you.

Hi Ellenna,

Yes, 'He could work in the bank' can mean the same as 'Maybe he works in the bank'. It can also have the second meaning that you describe. Only context can really tell us which it is. As you can see, modal verbs can be used in different ways to mean different things.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you very-very much!

Evening Sir,

Could you please explain the word "has to be". I am pretty not clear that exactly in which situation "has to be" used.

Hello Khadhar,

We use 'have to' with a similar meaning to 'must'. It can be followed by any verb in the infinitive form, including 'be':

I have to be at home before midnight.

I must be at home before midnight.


'Had to' is the past form for both 'must' and 'have to':

I had to be at home before midnight.


You can read more about 'have to' and how it differs from 'must' on this page.



The LearnEnglish Team